Notes taken not word-for-word, but translated into my own words from the book: The Complete Idiot´s Guide to Understanding Einstein (2nd edition) by Gary F. Moring.
Greeks = earliest contributors to mechanical science
Science of mechanics = describes causes of motion and material objects. Also explains the motion of earthly and ‘heavenly’ bodies, inclusive of falling objects and projectiles.
Eratosthenes (~300 BC/BCE) = used trigonometry to show that the Earth was round and calculated the circumference. They were not far off from the true circumference calculated today.
Paradigm shift – (watered down definition [more on Paradigm shift later]) – a dramatic change.
A paradigm shift occured in what is known as the Renaissance period between the years of 1350 and 1550.
During the Renaissance period, the Catholic church had the most power. Also, during this time scholastic philosophy was the dominant western type of philosophy.
Scholastic Philosophy = the religious beliefs overpowered observation in terms of how science was interpreted.
This period was, however, important because it allowed people to ask questions.
-The more about Paradigm Shift promised earlier-
Paradigm = dominant world view, Shift = a change